Although they originally come from bone marrow, adult (or and so are often called, "mesenchymal") stem cells can also be derived from a variety of body tissues. These cells include fat, the thin lining on the surface of bone called the actual precise periosteum, joint lining (synovium), muscle, skin, baby teeth, moreover cartilage.
Their purpose is simply to act as repairmen to change and regenerate cells that are lost as a result of injury, normal turnover, moreover aging. Think of them as the handyman around the house!
There have been attempts at defining is what constitutes a true mesenchymal stem cell. Various cell surface markers have been used to describe doing these cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)appear to say certain traits and characteristics in common. Finally, it has been agreed in case a true MSC can achieve differentiating into bone, cartilage, as well as full.
Although MSCs harvested through different tissues look the same, it's not clear if they behave the same or have a similar capabilities.
One study, for instance, showed that the MSCs most in a position to become cartilage were stem cells composed of joint lining (synovial) structure. Other MSCs that showed an improved ability to become flexible material were those from navicular bone marrow and from periosteum.
Another issue is quality of MSCs. How effective could they be under different circumstances? It's clear that stem cells placed in an environment with specifically stimulatory growth factors separate better. On the flip side, there have been a bit more studies indicating that latest age may slow base cell multiplication and hand. However, other studies indicate that no matter age, enough good quality MSCs can be obtained that do have adequate get to differentiate into cartilage cells. (At our center, we usually use 75 years of age as our cutoff, although a lot of of our best results have occurred in older individuals. )
The potential application of MSCs to tell apart into cartilage cells and be employed to repair cartilage damage in OsteoArthritis is a hot topic nowadays.
It is an extremely complicated process though, and current research has used normal cartilage since the model to emulate. Most stem cell research models of cartilage have a couple of things in common. First, they will use MSCs. Then, a matrix possibly scaffold is incorporated. This framework can be described as "home" for the MSCs. Finally, the stem cells are exposed to a variety of growth factors informed about stimulate differentiation and divide.
In many experiments done in laboratory settings, the quality of cartilage based on MSCs has been unsatisfying. It appears that the both the caliber of stem cell as well as the extracellular environment is crucial for the normal development having to do with viable strong cartilage. The exact "key" remains elusive. There seems to be a complex arrangements between enzymes and health proteins that degrade cartilage for example matrix metalloproteinases and much more information that build cartilage like these transforming growth factors, bone morphogenic protein, and parathyroid hormonal, to name a hindered.
One final interesting you see that MSCs have a unique property that is often overlooked. They have immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory functions which are demonstrated both in the laboratory setting as well as in animal models. This has a lot of potential impact, particularly when considering their use up and down Arthritis Treatment.
For a more scientific discussion from the intricacies of MSC biology as it pertains to cartilage regeneration, readers are described the excellent works distributed by Drs. Faye Chen moreover Rocky Tuan..